What is Trichoderma Viride & How It Interacts With Plants?
Trichoderma is a genus of soil-dwelling fungi found all over the world that are highly effective at colonizing many kinds of plant roots, and inhibiting fungi that cause many types of diseases. It was one of the first types of biofungicides commercially available.
Is Trichoderma Viride Bio Pesticides?
Trichoderma species are free-living fungi that are common in soil and root ecosystems. They are highly interactive in root, soil and foliar environments, and produce a variety of compounds that induce localized and systemic resistance responses in plants. Trichoderma have long been recognized as biocontrol agents for the control of plant diseases and for their ability to enhance root growth and development, crop productivity, resistance to abiotic stresses, and uptake and use of nutrients. However, adoption rate of biopesticides is very slow, compared to synthetic chemicals. Among different biopesticides, Trichoderma is most important, having many success stories. A number of successful products based on different species of Trichoderma have been commercialized in India. Trichoderma isolates are formulated using different organic and inorganic bearers either through solid or liquid fermentation technologies. They are used for seed treatment, seed bio-priming, seedling dip, soil application and foliar spray. For the management of plant diseases, application of Trichoderma formulations with strain mixtures performs better than individual strains. Commercialization of biopesticide products is primarily hindered due to poor shelf life.
HOW TRICHODERMA INTERACTS WITH PLANTS PLANT ROOT COLONIZATION
Once in the soil, this fungus colonizes the roots of plants. By growing on the roots and in the rhizosphere, it forms a physical barrier to prevent the growth of fungi that would otherwise cause disease on the plant.
Plants frequently produce chemicals to defend themselves, and Trichoderma is resistant to many of them, which helps it to colonize the roots. And it does this without interfering with other microbes that help the plants, such as mychorrhizae or Rhizobium (bacteria that fix nitrogen).
Trichoderma can improve plant health even in the absence of pathogens. The fungus grows best in soil that is acidic, and it helps create such an environment by secreting organic acids.
These acids have an additional effect that greatly benefits the plants – they can solubilize phosphates and mineral ions, such as iron, magnesium, and manganese. These means they facilitate dissolving of these minerals, making it easier for the plants to absorb them. Such nutrients are often in short supply in the soil.
STIMULATION OF PLANT DEFENSE MECHANISMS
You may not know that plants have immune systems. They are able to sense invasion by pathogens and activate cascades of responses to produce chemicals to protect themselves.
Trichoderma has been shown to be able to activate plant defense responses, which enables the plant to control some infections above the ground, but their effects are not limited to just soil-borne pathogens. An example is Botrytis, a debilitating aboveground fungus that is sometimes controlled using Trichoderma.
Features of Trichoderma viride:
- 1, Through the protection and treatment, can effectively prevent and control root rot, cataplexy, blight, wilt, verticillium wilt, anthrax, and other soil-borne diseases;
- 2, Improve the soil, break the knot, improve the soil permeability and oxygen supply of the root system;
- 3. Promote root growth, make crop growth more vigorous and increase crop yield, etc.